Dating the pyramids › Dr Karl's Great Moments In Science (ABC Science)
Let us review the alignments of the pyramids with the stars. The date at which all Egyptologists and archaeologists believe the pyramids to have been built. Ancient Egyptian chronology and the astronomical orientation of pyramids. to about +/ years, a figure that radiocarbon dating cannot at present improve. This is a fortuitous coincidence, since Mei's claim that the pyramids date back before the Flood is another Hermetic forgery, and also extant only.
Proctor refers to "the multitude of relations, independent of the pyramid, which have turned up while Pyramidalists have been endeavouring to connect the pyramid with the solar system.
The Origin and Significance of the Great Pyramid: Chapter I. The Astronomical Theory
Proctor's own explanation of the peculiar features which distinguish the internal construction of the Great Pyramid from that of the other pyramids is very ingenious, and probably conclusive: He says, we see "in all the Egyptian pyramids the evidence of an astronomical plan; and in the Great Pyramid we find evidence that such a plan was carried out with great skill, and with an attention to points of detail which shows that, for some reason or other, the edifice was required to be most carefully built in a special astronomical position.
As layer after layer of the building was placed, this passage was carried towards the north until it reached the northern face of the Pyramid. Here it was compelled to terminate and another mode of observing the Pole-star had to be used. This was effected by making a fresh passage "in such a direction as to contain the rays from the Pole-star after reflection at a.
Proctor adds that at the point where the p. For from here upwards the small ascending passage is changed to one of great height, so as to command a long vertical space of the heavens, precisely as a modern astronomer sets his transit circle to sweep the vertical meridian. To facilitate these observations, long slant stone ramps or banks are placed at each side of the gallery the whole of its length, with holes in them at equal distances for the purpose of receiving movable seats.
Regarded as a kind of architectural transit instrument, the Great Gallery would, says Mr. Proctor, "have to be carried to a certain height, and there open out on the level to which the pyramid had then attained, the sides and top being carried up until the southernmost end of the gallery was completed.
Proctor concludes an interesting chapter on this subject by saying, "if a telescopist of our time will try to plan out a method of determining the declinations and right ascensions of stars say for the purpose of forming a trustworthy star chart or cataloguewithout using a telescope, by using such an observing place as the Great Gallery, he will see how much might be done, so far as equatorial and zodiacal stars were concerned; and they are altogether the most important, even now, and were still more so in the days when the stars in their courses were supposed to rule the fates of men and nations.
Proctor gives a view of the Pyramid observatory, showing the object end of the great observing tube.
In that article he says, "the astronomers who observed from the Great Pyramid doubtless made many more observations off the meridian p. They no doubt often used astrolabes and similar instruments to determine the position of stars, planets, comets, etc. But all those observations were regulated by, and derived their value from, the work done in the Great Ascending Gallery.
The modern astronomer sees that this was the only way in which exact observations of the heavenly bodies all over the star-sphere could possibly have been made; and seeing the extreme care, the most marvellous pains, which the astronomers of the Great Pyramid took to secure good meridional work, the astronomer recognizes in them fellow workers.
Proctor very properly assumes, however, that the builder of the Great Pyramid had something more than a scientific purpose in its erection, something beyond even its use as a tomb. That purpose is to be gathered from the fact that "the astronomy of the time of Cheops was essentially astrology, and astrology a most important part of religion. Proctor, "a gigantic horoscope for him and for him only, we can understand its purport, much though we may marvel at the vast expenditure of care, labour, and treasure at which it was erected.
Granted full faith in astrology and we know there was such faithit was worth while to build even such a structure as the Great Pyramid; just as, granted the ideas of Egyptians about burial, we can understand the erection of so mighty a mass, and all save its special astronomical character. Of no other theory, I venture to say, than that which combines these two strange but most marked characteristics of the Egyptian mind, can this be said.
Proctor gives a figure, taken from Raphael's "Astrology," representing the ordinary horoscope and its relations to "a horizontal, carefully-oriented square plane surface, such as the top of the pyramid was, with just such direction lines as would naturally be used on such a platform"; p. Proctor has conclusively established the astrological purpose of the Great Pyramid.
Elsewhere, he says, "remembering the mysterious influence which astrologers ascribed to special numbers, figures, positions, and so forth, the care with which the Great Pyramid was so proportioned as to indicate particular astronomical and mathematical relations is at once explained.
The four sides of the square base were carefully placed with reference to the cardinal points, precisely like the four sides of the ordinary square scheme of nativity. Smyth, is fulfilled in this manner, that the four sides contain one hundred times as many p. The pyramid inch again is itself mystically connected with astronomical relations, for its length is equal to the five hundred millionth part of the earth's diameter, to a degree of exactness corresponding well with what we might expect Chaldean astronomers to attain.
Relations such as these are precisely what we might expect to find in buildings having an astrological significance. Similarly, it would correspond well with the mysticism of astrology that the pyramid should be so proportioned as to make the height be the radius of a circle whose circumference would equal the circuit of the pyramid's base. Again, that long slant tunnel, leading downwards from the pyramid's northern face, would at once find a meaning in this astrological theory.
The slant tunnel pointed to the pole-star of Cheops's time, when due north below the true pole of the heavens. It could afford no indication of time, because a pole-star moves very slowly, and the pole-star of Cheops's day must have been in view through that tunnel for more than an hour at a time. But, apart from the mystical significance which an astrologer would attribute to such a relation, it may be shown that this slant tunnel is precisely what the astrologer would require in order to get the horoscope correctly.
The king also deposited the instruments and the thuribula with which his forefathers had sacrificed to the stars, p. An early Arab writer, Jafer Ben Mohammed Balkhi, who was himself an astrologer, says that the pyramids were built for refuge against an approaching destruction of every created being, by submersion or by fire, which was foreseen by wise men previous to the flood. Proctor speaks of the religious observances associated with astrological observations. With this kind of accuracy, it's no wonder they were one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
It took over 4, years before the astronomer, Tycho Brahe, was able to take astronomical measurements to a greater accuracy. And this led to a problem that has bothered Egyptologists for a long time - how did they manage to line up the east and west sides of the Great Pyramid so accurately with the North Pole? Now we're not talking about Magnetic North. We're talking about Geographic North which is the pole about which the Earth seems to spin.
The Magnetic North Pole is currently wandering at a few kilometres per year through the far north of Canada, while the Geographic North Pole is in the Arctic One way to find Geographic North would be by looking at the Sun. You'd do this around the time of the solstice, when for a little while, the Sun would appear to have stopped marching higher or lower in the sky.
Then you note the rising position of the Sun in East, and the setting position of the Sun in the West, and halve the angle between them - bingo, True North. But there are a few problems with this method. First, when objects are near the horizon, the Earth's atmosphere causes a lot of interference. Secondly, you need a clear view to the horizon in both the East and the West, which was not available from the sites of the pyramids The other way to find Geographic North involves the stars at night.
The Celestial North Pole is a point in the sky about which the stars appear to rotate. If you took a time lapse photograph over a full night, you would see that all of the visible stars would appear to move in circles some big and some small. The star Polaris would make an incredibly small circle because it's right next to the Celestial North Pole.
So it's called the Pole Star But there's a slight problem with this method as well.
The Giza Doomsday Clock
The North-South spin axis of the Earth is not fixed, but rotates slowly like a giant top. Imagine you have a big basketball and it's spinning. Now the spin axis is not straight up-and-down, but tilted by 23 degrees from the vertical.
This how the Earth is currently spinning. Now start off with the North Pole of your spinning basketball slightly to the right.